Feminism is a broad term that investigates women’s position in society and fights for their rights and opportunities. The study of how literary texts depict or disregard women, support or challenge prejudices, has been the core activity of feminist criticism. “Feminist Criticism is a political act whose aim is not simply to interpret the world but to change it, by changing the consciousness of those who read and their relation to what they read,” writes Judith Fetterley in her book “The Resisting Reader”.
John Keats wrote Ode to Autumn in September 1819. John Keats depicts the various qualities of autumn and its development through time in this poem, “Ode to Autumn.” Keats employed rich imagery throughout the poem to stimulate the reader’s attention as well as appeal to the sensations of sight and taste. Ode to Autumn is a unique way of appreciating autumn. We’re all acquainted with Thomas Hardy’s portrayal of autumn as dark, chill, and lonely, as well as the terrible sensation of growing old and approaching death. Keats, on the other hand, perceives the opposite side of the coin. He sees autumn as: “Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness/close bosom friend of the maturing sun”.
Metaphysical poetry is an outpouring of dissatisfaction with Elizabethan poetry’s traditional structure and content. By metaphysical poetry, we mean a new school of poetry that includes elements such as a sudden and striking start, difficulty, dramatic quality, combining of desire and intelligence, reasoning and wit, conceits and illustrations, conceptual and descriptive tone, and the use of colloquial language, among others. In order to assess Donne as a metaphysical poet, we must engage in an analytical assessment of his main poems and their qualities.
New Criticism which influenced literature from the 1940s through the 1960s has left a permanent impact on the way we interpret literature. “New Criticism” to a great extent is the literary product of the frail human being who has been cut off from all the certainties of the world that he perceived earlier. Therefore, it is a literary criticism that aspires to interpret literature without the support of any context since all of these have been made absurd by the incidents of World War I. The term “New Criticism” originated from J.C Ransom’s book “The New Criticism” which was published in 1941. So the term New Criticism came after a while when writers like T.S Eliot and I.A Richard had become established within the Anglo-American academia.
To fully appreciate the concept of intentional fallacy and affective fallacy, first of all we have to understand the concept of New Criticism and the form of criticism it substituted i.e. biographical-historical criticism.