When Martin Esslin published his book The Theater of Absurd in 1960, only then did the phrase “Theater of Absurd” become popular. The theatre of absurd illustrates an attitude and a frame of mind towards life, where human existence is a conundrum of illogical, senseless, and hopeless activity.
Literature mirrors the tendencies of the period in which it was written. In addition to that, there is inevitably a leading writer who becomes the representative of his time gives expression to its achievements and expectations, its success or deprivation in his literary works.
The term “Renaissance” denotes “rebirth”. From ‘Renaissance Man’, we think of an individual who expanded an extensive breadth of learning across various fields. Generally a renaissance man desired to absorb every branch of knowledge such as science, art, religion etc. Francis Bacon and Da Vinci are perhaps the best examples of Renaissance man. Before the Renaissance, Christian theology and religious beliefs were dominating a lot in the Middle Ages.
Christopher Marlowe gives the concept of his tragedy through his famous drama Doctor Faustus. It is said that conflict is the kernel of tragedy and the source of this conflict may be on two levels: external and internal.
An Apology for Poetry is one of the major works of Sir Philip Sidney written in the Sixteenth century. Sidney wrote this work in 1580 but it was published posthumously in 1595. Sidney wished to guard poetry and reinstate the greatness of the poet which has tainted in his age. Sidney thought poetry to have greater assertion for defense and justification. Sidney turns to disprove the allegation imposed upon poetry by Stephen Gosson and other Elizabethan critics.