A theological, intellectual, and literary movement known as transcendentalism emerged in the eastern United States during the first half of the nineteenth century. In opposition to empiricists and rationalists, the transcendentalists had doubts about knowledge derived from either perception or rationality. They asserted that knowledge should come from personal revelation and intuition rather than through human skepticism.
Ferdinand de Saussure is most known today for his 1916 publication, Cours de Linguistique Générale, which is essentially a compilation of his lectures. The English version of the same text was eventually published as Course in General Linguistics. Saussure contends that language functions as a structure.