Victorian Age in English Literature

The Victorian Age, which derives its name from the reign of Queen Victoria spanning from 1837 to 1901, marked a profound shift in English literature and culture. The emphasis on emotion and imagination of the Romantic era gave way to a new emphasis on social realism, industrialization, and the intricacies of a quickly changing society during this time. With its innovations in technology and urbanization, the Industrial Revolution significantly influenced the Victorian era.

Victorian authors and thinkers were compelled to address the moral, social, and political issues of the day as the world experienced significant change. Thus, the Victorian Age is remembered as a multifaceted age that examined the conflicts between tradition and progress, religion and doubt, and social fairness and inequity, all of which had a lasting influence on English literature and culture.

Cultural and Historical Background

The Victorian Age was profoundly shaped by its cultural and historical background, which was characterized by several key factors.

It was important to consider the effects of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the Industrial Revolution were significant. The rapid mechanization of industry and the transition from rural to industrial economies changed the British landscape. This upheaval had a significant impact on the social structure, the nature of labor, and people’s living arrangements, resulting in both economic prosperity and stark inequality.

Read More: Romantic Age in English Literature

Significant social and economic changes occurred, including urbanization. Cities expanded at a rate never before seen, drawing people from the countryside to cities in search of work. New problems with overcrowding, sanitation, the expansion of slums, and the rise of a growing middle class were brought on by this urbanization.

The development of technology and the spread of literacy were key features of this time period. Transportation and communication were completely transformed by innovations like the steam engine and the expansion of the railroads. A culture of reading and intellectual discourse was also fostered by the abundance of newspapers, periodicals, and books that came about as a result of rising literacy rates.

The morality and values of the Victorian era played a significant role as well. A strong sense of decorum, responsibility, and respectability pervaded this time period, which was characterized by Queen Victoria’s personal reputation for having stringent moral standards. These moral principles influenced Victorian literature and social norms.

Literature of the Victorian Age

In contrast to the Romantic era‘s predominantly lyrical focus, novels rose to prominence during the Victorian age and became the dominating literary form. This change reflected the time’s focus on social realism and examination of the intricacies of the human condition.

Famous novelists who wrote novels during the Victorian era included Thomas Hardy, Charlotte Bronte, and Charles Dickens. Dickens wrote novels like “Oliver Twist” and “Great Expectations,” which shed light on the harsh realities of urban life and the problems of the working class. Dickens is renowned for his vivid characters and societal satire.

Read More: Charles Dickens as a victorian poet

With her novel “Jane Eyre,” Charlotte Bronte provided a comprehensive exploration of love, class, and female freedom by delving into the emotional and psychological depths of her characters, particularly the female protagonist.

In contrast, Thomas Hardy focused on the rural setting and the misfortune of people entangled in the web of fate and circumstance in works like “Tess of the d’Urbervilles” and “Far from the Madding Crowd.” The conflicts between tradition and modernity were frequently portrayed in his novels.

Poetry and Romantic Revival

While novels became more popular during the Victorian era, poetry remained an important and significant component of the literary landscape. The Romantic Revival, which saw writers return to earlier Romantic themes of nature, spirituality, and social critique, was an important feature of Victorian poetry.

Alfred Lord Tennyson and Robert Browning, two well-known poets of the time, are prime examples of the Romantic Revival in their works. Nature served as a frequent source of inspiration for Tennyson’s poetry, and his collection “In Memoriam” examined topics such as loss, faith, and the human condition. His poem “The Lady of Shalott” is a wonderful illustration of how Victorian poetry combines nature with spirituality.

Robert Browning, who is known for his dramatic monologues, explored the complicated moral and psychological motivations of his characters. In order to examine themes of justice and human nature, his poem “The Ring and the Book” mixes together several perspectives.

Along with these poets, the Romantic Revival had a significant impact on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of artists and poets that emerged during the Victorian era. With the help of sophisticated visual art, poets like Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti, and Algernon Charles Swinburne, among others, explored themes of beauty, sensuality, and spirituality.

Read More: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Social and Political Essays

The Victorian Era saw a flourishing of social and political essays in addition to the predominance of novels and the resurgence of Romantic themes in poetry. These essays served as a platform for the discussion of important problems pertaining to class, gender, and imperialism, which reflects the period’s intense involvement with important societal issues.

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During the Victorian era, authors like John Stuart Mill and Thomas Carlyle significantly influenced the field of social and political essays. Philosopher and political economist John Stuart Mill wrote notable works like “On Liberty” and “The Subjection of Women.” He defended individual freedom and promoted gender equality in these essays, pushing society to acknowledge the inherent rights and abilities of all people, regardless of gender.

On the other hand, Thomas Carlyle explored issues related to socioeconomic class and the effects of industrialization. While “Past and Present” offered a critical analysis of the effects of rapid societal change, “Chartism” addressed the frustrations of the working class and their aspirations for political reform.

These individuals were not the only ones who wrote and thought critically about social and political concerns throughout the Victorian era; there were many other authors and philosophers as well. These essays served as a platform for discussions among intellectuals and the development of concepts that would later influence the social and political atmosphere in Britain and beyond.

They contributed significantly to promoting change and bringing attention to pressing societal issues, leaving a lasting legacy in the fields of politics, literature, and social reform.

Key Themes and Characteristics

The Victorian era’s dedication to social realism and critique was a major theme and defining feature of the period. Victorian authors were deeply concerned about the social inequalities and disparities between classes that were prevalent in their rapidly evolving society. The commitment was shown in the meticulous analysis of the lives of everyday people and the portrayal of daily life.

Charles Dickens, a writer best known for his works “Oliver Twist” and “Hard Times,” applied his creative talent to demonstrate the difficult circumstances that the working class had to endure. They revealed the dark side of industrialisation, child labour, and poverty through compelling narratives and characters. Dickens, in particular, rose to prominence as a champion of social change, using his fiction to promote reform and draw attention to the condition of the oppressed.

Along with Dickens, other Victorian novelists like Thomas Hardy and Elizabeth Gaskell also practiced social realism by highlighting the difficulties and ambitions of common people. While Hardy’s writings, such as “Tess of the d’Urbervilles” and “The Mayor of Casterbridge,” explored the difficulties of rural life and the injustices experienced by women, Gaskell’s “North and South” highlighted the conflict between industrial capitalism and workers’ rights.

Exploration of Gender and Feminism

Women’s rights and their position in society were extensively explored throughout the Victorian era, reflecting the changing sentiments of the time. Victorian literature played a pivotal role in both examining women’s responsibilities and promoting more gender equality.

Authors who identified as feminists, such as Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and George Eliot, made significant contributions to this discourse. Poetry by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, notably “Sonnets from the Portuguese” and the epic poem “Aurora Leigh,” dealt with issues of love, identity, and the fight for women’s independence. Her works were distinguished by a progressive attitude on gender equality and women’s freedom of expression.

In general, the emotional lives and problems of female characters were given more attention in Victorian literature. Novels like George Eliot’s “Middlemarch” and Charlotte Bronte’s “Jane Eyre” provided complex depictions of women’s experiences, aspirations, and societal limitations.

Moral and Ethical Inquiry

The Victorian era was characterized by a profound and constant involvement with moral and ethical inquiry in its literature, which reflected the era’s intense reflection on moral conundrums and theological issues. This introspection was influenced by Religious uncertainty and the significant scientific advancements.

Victorian authors grappled with moral dilemmas that were frequently created in the context of rapidly changing social, scientific, and religious atmosphere. For instance, the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin led to serious concerns regarding humanity’s moral obligations and place in the natural world. His book, “On the Origin of Species,” profoundly influenced Victorian thought and disrupted established theological conceptions of creation.

Novels like “Tess of the d’Urbervilles” and “Jude the Obscure,” written by authors like Thomas Hardy, examined themes of fate, destiny, and moral judgment. These works highlighted morally conflicted protagonists within an indifferent or even hostile setting.

Literature from the Victorian era also reflects a rise in religious skepticism and doubt. Writers like Matthew Arnold portrayed a sense of spiritual crisis and the eroding of established religious certainties in his poem “Dover Beach.” Victorian literature was known for its contemplative, frequently depressing exploration of faith and ethics.

Notable Figures of the Victorian Age

The Victorian Age was teeming with notable figures who left an indelible mark on English literature and culture, reflecting the spirit and ethos of the era.

Charles Dickens was a prolific novelist and social critic who is regarded as one of the most well-known individuals of the Victorian era. His works, including “Oliver Twist,” “Great Expectations,” and “A Tale of Two Cities,” not only pleased readers with their endearing characters and compelling stories, but also provided insight into the glaring social inequalities and class divisions that characterized Victorian society. Dickens was an advocate of social change, and his writings significantly contributed to increasing public awareness of these issues.

Read More: A Tale of Two Cities as a historical novel

Another notable figure from the Victorian era is Charlotte Bronte, the author of the well-known novel “Jane Eyre.” Her work, which is known for its examination of love, class, and female freedom, is still regarded as a timeless masterpiece. Bront’s portrayal of the bold heroine and her daring story choices subverted the expectations of her period and had a long-lasting influence on feminist literature.

Alfred Lord Tennyson, referred to as the “Poet Laureate of the Victorian Age,” was celebrated for his excellent poetry. His poems, including “The Lady of Shalott,” “In Memoriam,” and “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” perfectly captured the Victorian preference for romanticism and reflection on the natural world and human emotion. Tennyson’s poems did a wonderful job of capturing the spirit of the age.

The Victorian Age was significantly shaped by Queen Victoria herself. Her nearly seven-decade rule, which was the longest in British history up to that moment, had a significant impact on the culture’s ideals and sensibility. Her dedication to moral principles and family life set the standard for Victorian culture and society. Her status as a patron of the arts and sciences also contributed to the intellectual vitality of the time.


In the history of English literature and culture, the Victorian era is recognized as a crucial and transformative time. It was distinguished by a diverse range of literary accomplishments, social consciousness, and in-depth moral and ethical inquiry. The Victorian era is still a testament to how writing has the ability to reflect, criticize, and inspire change because of its wide literary output and deep engagement with the opportunities and challenges of the time. It established the foundation for modern literature and culture, making it a period of permanent significance in the history of English literature.

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